In 1987, psychologist Dr. Francine Shapiro made the chance observation that under certain conditions eye movements can reduce the intensity of disturbing thoughts. Dr. Shapiro studied this effect scientifically. In 1989 she reported her success using EMDR with trauma survivors in the Journal of Traumatic Stress. Since then, EMDR has developed and evolved through the contributions of therapists and researchers all over the world. Today EMDR is a set of protocols that incorporate elements from many different treatment approaches.